E. Srinivasa, Rangaswamy D. R. and J. Sannappa*
The natural background gamma radiation levels were measured in dwellings of urban Hassan city & its surrounding Taluks, Karnataka state, using environmental radiation Dosimeter ER-709. The recorded gamma dose rate in indoor atmosphere was found to vary from 87 nGy.h-1to 487 nGy.h-1 with a mean value of 288.6±102 nGy.h-1. In outdoor atmosphere it was found to vary from 78.3 nGy.h-1to 461nGy.h-1 with an average value of 260.4±88 nGy.h-1. It was observed that the dose rates are higher in Channarayapatna Taluk and in Hassan City and lower in the place of Halebeedu and Belur. The absorbed dose at different mines and granite factories were found to vary from 304.5 nGy.h-1to 583 nGy.h-1with an average value of 434.6 nGy.h-1. The Annual effective dose due to natural background gamma radiation exposure in the Hassan city and its surrounding Taluks is calculated and found to be 0.67 mSv.y-1 & 2.90 mSv.y-1with mean value of 1.735±0.56 mSv.y-1. This is higher than the global average.
Bhavani Yenda*, Bandaru V Rao and B Ganga Rao
In this study, In-vitro antioxidant activity of hexane (CMHE), ethyl acetate (CMEA) and methanolic (CMME) extracts of Cucurbita maxima leaves was investigated by using Superoxide radical, Hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging methods. C.maxima is an annual climber growing up to 5 m. It is mentioned in Ayurveda as a medicinal plant for the treatment of tapeworms, wounds etc. The tested extracts showed dose dependent inhibition of in vitro free radical generation of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radicals. The results clearly indicated the free radical scavenging activity of tested extracts of C.maxima, this activity is comparable with that of the standard drug ascorbic acid.
M. Vinay*, Ramu and B. Mahalingam
Shoreline delineation is a complex task and it requires lot of man power required in terms of traditional method such as ground survey. But after 1973’s the Remote Sensing Landsat satellite have evolved and monitoring the earth environment from 1973 to present. A series of satellite have launched Landsat MSS, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. By using the Landsat imagery, different indices and mathematical transformation have developed by several researchers for different application. The present study describes about how the Landsat imageries are utilized for shoreline extraction. The method of integrating Tasseled Cap and NDVI have utilized and by performing Unsupervised classification the shoreline will be delineated in a dynamic way.
Santhoshi M* and Ch. Rajasekhar
Future mobile communication systems will be designed to support a wide range of data rates with complex quality of service matrix. The demand of higher bandwidth and data rates has been increased substantially during recent years. In order to achieve efficient resource utilization in all sorts of deployment scenarios and QoS requirements. Several interference reduction techniques have been suggested in past and proved to be effective in reducing the interference to some extent and thereby increase system capacity. Till now the research was done only on to control intracellular interference but in this paper it is discussed about the intracellular interference. However, in a highly loaded system, the problem of intercellular interference remains an important issue. In this paper, the intercellular interference problem of scheduling process is to be overcome by introducing a new and efficient resource allocation strategy called weight Matrix (WM) and with dynamic channel gain parameter. The proposed algorithm is to evaluate the existing resource allocation for performance evaluation. In this paper we increase system throughput and decrease the packet loss and we analyze the communication period. Finally we show how the throughput is increased compared to fixed algorithm. Also we show how the packet loss is decreased compared to fixed algorithm. This work considered single carrier but it can further be extended with multicarrier systems and also it can be extended to priority queuing and also we can give power ratings to users.
Haritha* and D. P. Raju
To meet modern complex control systems communication demands, the paper presents a multi-channel UART controller based on FIFO (First In First Out) technique. The paper presents design method of asynchronous FIFO and structure of the controller. This controller is designed with FIFO circuit block and UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) circuit block to implement communication in modern complex control systems quickly and effectively. Form the communication sequence diagrams, it is easily to know that this controller can be used to implement communication when master equipment and slaver equipment are set at different Baud Rate. It also can be used to reduce synchronization error between sub-systems in a system with several sub-systems. The controller is reconfigurable and scalable.
Kalpana* and K H K Raghu Vamsi
The main challenging areas in VLSI are performance, cost, testing, area, reliability, delay and power. The demand for portable computing devices and communications system are increasing rapidly. These applications require low power dissipation and low area with high speed for VLSI circuits. Hence it is important aspect to optimize power, area and delay .So these constraints optimization became one of the main challenges. In this paper a Parallel FIR Digital Filter Structures for Symmetric Convolutions Based on Fast FIR Algorithm are designed with area, delay and power efficient. To optimize these structures a data flow HDL model is preferred because of consuming less resources when compare with other modeling schemes. This architecture is authorized in Verilog. Behavior simulation is done by using the ISE simulator and synthesis can be done by using the synthesis Xilinx ISE 9.2i.
Gembali Krishna Rao* and Adari Satya Srinivasa Rao
In this paper we examine the performance of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based Multiple Input Multiple output (MIMO) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system using adaptive modulation and compare with DWT based MIMO OFDM system and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based MIMO OFDM system. Wavelet based OFDM has lot of advantages compare to the FFT based OFDM like there is no need of cyclic prefix, flexibility and optimal resolution. DWT with Haar mother constructed multi carrier in addition to the predictable OFDM is less than the consequence of taking multiple antennas scheme while taking BPSK and QPSK as dual modulation schemes in additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGN). Based on the performance of bit error rate to the signal to noise ratio, the DWT constructed multicarrier scheme was established to be higher than the predictable OFDM. While using adaptive modulation in DWT based MIMO OFDM system with BPSK results in higher BER performance than DWT based MIMO OFDM system.
Pavan Srinivas* and D. P. Raju
Given the critical role of motion estimation (ME) in a video coder, testing such a module is of priority concern. While focusing on the testing of ME in a video coding system, this work presents an error detection and data recovery (EDDR) design, based on the residue-and-quotient (RQ) code, to embed into ME for video coding testing applications. An error in processing elements (PEs), i.e. key components of a ME, can be detected and recovered effectively by using the proposed EDDR design. Experimental results indicate that the proposed Error Detection and Data Recovery design for motion estimation testing can detect errors and recover data with an acceptable area overhead and timing penalty. The functional verification and synthesis can be done by using any version of Xilinx ISE.
Bh. Sirisha* and B. Venugopal
Convolution encoder and Viterbi decoder are the basic and important blocks in any Code Division Multiple Accesses (CDMA). They are widely used in communication system due to their error correcting capability but the performance degrades with variable constraint length. In this context to have detail analysis. The best way of decoding against random errors is to compute the received sequence with every possible code sequence. This is called maximum likelihood (ML) decoding. The criterion for deciding between two paths is to select the one having the smaller metric. The rule maximizes the probability of a correct decision. The Viterbi algorithm occupies large memory and computational resources. To address this problem Proposed Viterbi Algorithm is introduced. The Proposed Viterbi decoder functionally is same as the previous Viterbi decoder but it reduces memory and the hardware resources. The proposed block diagram checks every node for path metric value and eliminates the path that is found if it is not having minimum distance. This paper deals with the implementation of convolution encoder and Viterbi decoder for fixed constraint length.
Maya. C and Narasimhamurthy*
In the present study anatomical and chemical properties of Dendrocalamus memberceus Munro species results are shows that number of vascular bundle frequency and vessel diameter is more at top portion. But there were no much variations in fiber length fiber width and lumen diameter from bottom to top level of the bamboo culm. Whereas the chemical composition results shows that higher level of hot water solubility at top portion as the vessel diameter is also more. This indicates that chemical composition varies from base to top at different height level of the bamboo culm.
Tumor disease multiclass prediction from nucleotide expression is an emerging research area in the field of bioinformatics. Gene expression profiling has been emerged as an efficient technique for cancer classification as well as for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment purposes. Studying cancer microarray gene expression data is a challenging task because microarray is high dimensional dataset with a noisy data. Efficient feature extraction and computational method development is indispensible for the analysis. In this paper a feature extraction method by Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been proposed to detect informative genes effectively. DCT offers a dimension reduction in feature sets. Again the approximation coefficients obtained by the decomposition at a level in DWT is used as the features for further study. Then K-means algorithm is applied on optimized feature datasets to cluster. These cluster information are feature sets and classified using Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) classifier to efficiently predict the class. The potential of the proposed approach is validated by many benchmark datasets such as lungs cancer dataset, breast cancer data set, Prostate cancer dataset, brain tumor dataset, colon dataset, Leukemia dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed method can be a useful approach for cancer classification with low computational complexity and high accuracy.
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